Quotes From Science

Bacterial communication: Tiny teamwork. Nature 424, 134 (10 July 2003)

“Until recently, bacteria were considered to be self-contained and self-sufficient individuals. These unicellular organisms were thought to lack the sophistication of plants and animals to organize into multicellular groups. We also assumed that they lacked the ability to communicate, a crucial function for organizing group activities. Our view has changed. Bacteria can organize into groups, they can communicate, and these abilities are important factors in the development of many diseases…AFTER A GRUDGING ACCEPTANCE of these examples, communication was viewed as a curiosity, unique to a few special bacteria. But we now know that many bacteria use cell-to-cell communication to control gene expression, a process that has become known as quorum sensing”

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http://www.nytimes.com/1998/04/14/science/tree-of-life-turns-out-to-have-surprisingly-complex-roots.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

‘Five years ago, we were very confident and arrogant in our ignorance,” said Dr. Eugene V. Koonin of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. ”Now we are starting to see the true complexity of life.”

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http://www.physorg.com/news148742058.html

“The primary cilium, the solitary, antenna-like structure that studs the outer surfaces of virtually all human cells, orient cells to move in the right direction and at the speed needed to heal wounds, much like a Global Positioning System helps ships navigate to their destinations”

“What we are dealing with is a physiological analogy to the GPS system with a coupled autopilot that coordinates air traffic or tankers on open sea,” says Soren T. Christensen, describing his recent research findings on the primary cilium, the GPS-like cell structure, at the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) 48th Annual Meeting, Dec. 13-17, 2008 in San Francisco

Gods amazing designs are becoming more evident every day. We now have another layer of phenomenal complexity for naturalists to explain. A sophisticated wireless GPS communication system between cells. Good luck Mr. Dawkins

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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969212605­001152

Recent cyanobacterial Kai protein structures suggest a rotary clock

“The proposed rotary clock mechanism regulates the stability of night-dominant Kai complexes for the timely dissociation and partial degradation of some clock components (namely, KaiB and KaiC). When all six subunits within one KaiC hexamer assembly are fully phosphorylated near the ATP binding sites, KaiC no longer binds new ATPs that are required for its stabilization (Nishiwaki et al., 2000, Mori et al., 2002 and Hayashi et al., 2003). Therefore, the functional role of KaiA is to ensure that KaiC is fully phosphorylated through a rotary mechanism until the KaiC hexamer dissociates to the point at which KaiC loses its autokinase and autophosphatase activities”

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2673451

The multiple codes of nucleotide sequences

“Nucleotide sequences carry genetic information of many different kinds, not just instructions for protein synthesis (triplet code). Several codes of nucleotide sequences are discussed including: (1) the translation framing code, responsible for correct triplet counting by the ribosome during protein synthesis; (2) the chromatin code, which provides instructions on appropriate placement of nucleosomes along the DNA molecules and their spatial arrangement; (3) a putative loop code for single-stranded RNA-protein interactions. The codes are degenerate and corresponding messages are not only interspersed but actually overlap, so that some nucleotides belong to several messages simultaneously. Tandemly repeated sequences frequently considered as functionless “junk” are found to be grouped into certain classes of repeat unit lengths. This indicates some functional involvement of these sequences”

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17511511

A first look at ARFome: dual-coding genes in mammalian genomes

“Coding of multiple proteins by overlapping reading frames is not a feature one would associate with eukaryotic genes. Indeed, codependency between codons of overlapping protein-coding regions IMPOSE A UNIQUE SET OF EVOLUTIONARY CONSTRAINTS making it a costly arrangement…. Here we show that although dual coding IS NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE BY CHANCE, a number of human transcripts contain overlapping coding regions. Using newly developed statistical techniques, we identified 40 candidate genes with evolutionarily conserved overlapping coding regions. Because our approach is conservative, we expect mammals to possess more dual-coding genes. Our results emphasize that the skepticism surrounding eukaryotic dual coding is unwarranted: rather than being artifacts, overlapping reading frames are often hallmarks of fascinating biology”

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http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090213161043.htm

Molecular Motors In Cells Work Together, Study Shows

“We found that molecular motors operate in an amazingly coordinated manner when moving an algal cell one way or the other,” said Jeneva Laib, the lead author and an undergraduate biomedical engineering student at the University of Virginia. “This provides a new understanding of the ways cells move.”

“We’ve found that large numbers of these molecular motors are turning on at the same time to generate large amounts of force, and then turning off at the same time to allow transport in the particular direction,”

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http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080903134159.htm

Structure Of Key Epigenetics Component Identified

Epigenetic code is a series of chemical switches that is added onto our DNA in order to ensure that the cells in our body can form different types of tissue, for example liver and skin, despite having identical DNA genetic code.

When DNA is copied from cell to cell, it is essential that the epigenetic code is also copied accurately. If not, a liver cell may divide into another type of cell, such as a nerve or eye cell. A breakdown in this system might also mean that a gene for cell growth is accidentally switched on, for example, leading to unregulated cell growth and the development of tumours

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What is a gene (Roderic Guigo in Nature) [ 25/05/2006 ]Nature 441, 398-401 (25 May 2006) | doi:10.1038/441398a; Published online 24 May 2006

“Information, it seems, is parceled out along chromosomes in a much more complex way than was originally supposed…An eye-opening study last year raised the possibility that plants sometimes rewrite their DNA on the basis of RNA messages inherited from generations past. A study on page 469 of this issue suggests that a comparable phenomenon might occur in mice, and by implication in other mammals. If this type of phenomenon is indeed widespread, it “would have huge implications,” says evolutionary geneticist Laurence Hurst

“The picture these studies paint is one of mind-boggling complexity…”We’ve come to the realization that the genome is full of overlapping transcripts.” Phillip Kapranov.

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http://www.mdpi.com/20751729/2/1/106/

“Is Life Unique?” David L. Abel

” Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI)…..positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal,

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http://www.tbiomed.com/content/7/1/3

“A comparative approach for the investigation of biological information processing: An examination of the structure and function of computer hard drives and DNA” David J D’Onofrio

The comparison of functional and structural characteristics of the DNA complex and the computer hard drive leads to a new descriptive paradigm that identifies the DNA as a dynamic storage system of biological information. This system is embodied in an autonomous operating system that inductively follows organizational structures, data hierarchy and executable operations that are well understood …Characterizing the “DNA hard drive” in this fashion can lead to insights arising from discrepancies in the descriptive framework, particularly with respect to positing the role of epigenetic processes in an information-processing context. Further expansions arising from this comparison include the view of cells as parallel computing machines ..”

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Bacterial communication: Tiny teamwork. Nature 424, 134 (10 July 2003)

“Until recently, bacteria were considered to be self-contained and self-sufficient individuals. These unicellular organisms were thought to lack the sophistication of plants and animals to organize into multicellular groups. We also assumed that they lacked the ability to communicate, a crucial function for organizing group activities. Our view has changed. Bacteria can organize into groups, they can communicate, and these abilities are important factors in the development of many diseases…AFTER A GRUDGING ACCEPTANCE of these examples, communication was viewed as a curiosity, unique to a few special bacteria. But we now know that many bacteria use cell-to-cell communication to control gene expression, a process that has become known as quorum sensing”

=======

http://www.physorg.com/news148742058.html

“The primary cilium, the solitary, antenna-like structure that studs the outer surfaces of virtually all human cells, orient cells to move in the right direction and at the speed needed to heal wounds, much like a Global Positioning System helps ships navigate to their destinations”

“What we are dealing with is a physiological analogy to the GPS system with a coupled autopilot that coordinates air traffic or tankers on open sea,” says Soren T. Christensen, describing his recent research findings on the primary cilium, the GPS-like cell structure, at the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) 48th Annual Meeting, Dec. 13-17, 2008 in San Francisco

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http://genome.cshlp.org/content/17/4/405.full

The genetic code is nearly optimal for allowing additional information within protein-coding sequences

“We find that the universal genetic code can allow arbitrary sequences of nucleotides within coding regions much better than the vast majority of other possible genetic codes. We further find that the ability to support parallel codes is strongly correlated with an additional property—minimization of the effects of frame-shift translation errors”

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17511511

A first look at ARFome: dual-coding genes in mammalian genomes

“Coding of multiple proteins by overlapping reading frames is not a feature one would associate with eukaryotic genes. Indeed, codependency between codons of overlapping protein-coding regions IMPOSE A UNIQUE SET OF EVOLUTIONARY CONSTRAINTS making it a costly arrangement…. Here we show that although dual coding IS NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE BY CHANCE, a number of human transcripts contain overlapping coding regions. Using newly developed statistical techniques, we identified 40 candidate genes with evolutionarily conserved overlapping coding regions. Because our approach is conservative, we expect mammals to possess more dual-coding genes. Our results emphasize that the skepticism surrounding eukaryotic dual coding is unwarranted: rather than being artifacts, overlapping reading frames are often hallmarks of fascinating biology”

=======

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2673451

The multiple codes of nucleotide sequences

“Nucleotide sequences carry genetic information of many different kinds, not  just instructions for protein synthesis (triplet code). Several codes of nucleotide sequences are discussed including: (1) the translation framing code, responsible for correct triplet counting by the ribosome during protein synthesis; (2) the chromatin code, which provides instructions on appropriate placement of nucleosomes along the DNA molecules and their spatial arrangement; (3) a putative loop code for single-stranded RNA-protein interactions. The codes are degenerate and corresponding messages are not only interspersed but actually overlap, so that some nucleotides belong to several messages simultaneously. Tandemly repeated sequences frequently considered as functionless “junk” are found to be grouped into certain classes of repeat unit lengths. This indicates some functional involvement of these sequences”

=======

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090213161043.htm

Molecular Motors In Cells Work Together, Study Shows

“We found that molecular motors operate in an amazingly coordinated manner when moving an algal cell one way or the other,” said Jeneva Laib, the lead author and an undergraduate biomedical engineering student at the University of Virginia. “This provides a new understanding of the ways cells move.”

“We’ve found that large numbers of these molecular motors are turning on at the same time to generate large amounts of force, and then turning off at the same time to allow transport in the particular direction,”

=======

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1208958/

Three subsets of sequence complexity

What kind of information produces function? In computer science, we call it a “program.” Another name for computer software is an “algorithm.” No man-made program comes close to the technical brilliance of even Mycoplasmal genetic algorithms. Mycoplasmas are the simplest known organism with the smallest known genome, to date. How was its genome and other living organisms’ genomes programmed?

Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC), ordered (OSC), and functional (FSC). FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC) or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC)

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18053935

Bacteria are small but not stupid: cognition, natural genetic engineering and socio-bacteriology.

“Forty years’ experience as a bacterial geneticist has taught me that bacteria possess many cognitive, computational and evolutionary capabilities unimaginable in the first six decades of the twentieth century…..Examination of colony development and organization led me to appreciate how extensive multicellular collaboration is among the majority of bacterial species. Contemporary research in many laboratories on cell-cell signaling, symbiosis and pathogenesis show that bacteria utilise sophisticated mechanisms for intercellular communication and even have the ability to commandeer the basic cell biology of ‘higher’ plants and animals to meet their own needs. This remarkable series of observations requires us to revise basic ideas about biological information processing and recognise that even the smallest cells are sentient beings”

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Flagellum Replaces Parts on the Fly 06/12/2010 “June 12, 2010 — A new study appears to show that the bacterial flagellum, a molecular rotary motor that has become iconic of the intelligent design movement, can repair parts of its rotor while it is rotating. The results of the study by Oxford University were published in PNAS,1 and were also the focus of a Commentary in PNAS by Michael D. Manson of Texas A&M University.2 Previous studies had shown that parts of the stationary part (stator) could be replaced while the flagellum was in operation, but the rotor “Turnover of a component of the rotor is even more surprising than stator turnover, given that it was previously known that the number of stator complexes can change while the motor is running,” the Oxford scientists said. The abstract explained: ”

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http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100311123522.htm

“Repair proteins appear to efficiently scan the genome for errors by jumping like fleas between DNA molecules, sliding along the strands, and perhaps pausing at suspicious spots, say researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Essex and the University of Vermont who tagged the proteins with quantum dots to watch the action unfold.

The findings are available today in Molecular Cell

“How this system works is an important unanswered question in this field,” he said. “It has to be able to identify very small mistakes in a 3-dimensional morass of gene strands. It’s akin to spotting potholes on every street all over the country and getting them fixed before the next rush hour.”

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http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100331141425.htm

600 Genes needed for basic cell division

“Of the 22,000 genes in each human cell, almost 600 play a part in mitosis, Ellenberg and colleagues found. To uncover which genes are involved in this process, the scientists developed a new method using high-throughput imaging of living cells. They silenced, or inactivated, each of the 22,000 human genes one by one in a different set of cells, and filmed those cells for 48 hours under a microscope. This generated almost 200,000 time-lapse movies of mitosis”

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“The code is meaningless unless translated. The modern cell’s translating machinery consists of at least 50 macromolecular components, which are themselves coded in DNA: the code cannot be translated otherwise than by products of translation themselves. It is the modern expression of omne vivum ex ovo. When and how did this circle become closed? It is exceedingly difficult to imagine.27” Nobel Prize winner Jacques Monod

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http://stanmed.stanford.edu/2011spring/article8.html

“It’s mind-boggling. A typical human brain contains about 200 billion neurons linked to one another via hundreds of trillions of tiny connections called synapses”

This level of detailed visualization has never been achieved before, Smith says. “The entire anatomical context of the synapses is preserved. You know right where each one is, and what kind it is,” he says.Observed in this manner, the brain’s overall complexity is almost beyond belief, says Smith. “One synapse, by itself, is more like a microprocessor with both memory-storage and information-processing elements than a mere on/off switch. In fact, one synapse may contain on the order of 1,000 molecularscaleswitches. A single human brain has more switches than all the computers and routers and Internetconnections on Earth,”Bruce Goldman

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“When we started out, the idea was that signaling pathways were fairly simple and linear,” says Tony Pawson, a cell biologist at the University of Toronto in Ontario. “Now, we appreciate that the signaling information in cells is organized through networks of information rather than simple discrete pathways. It is infinitely more complex.” Erica Hayden (Nature, Vol. 464, 1 April 2010)

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http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060123121832.htm

The Closest Look Ever At The Cell’s (257 new) Machines

“The study combined a method of extracting complete protein complexes from cells (tandem affinity purification, developed in 2001 by Bertrand Séraphin at EMBL), mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to investigate the entire protein household of yeast, turning up 257 machines that had never been observed. It also revealed new components of nearly every complex already known. ”

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http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=3704

“DNA unraveled” By Colin Nickerson September 24, 2007

A ‘scientific revolution’ is taking place, as researchers explore the genomic jungle

“I think we’re all pretty awed by what we’re seeing,” Collins said. “It amounts to a scientific revolution.”

“The picture that’s emerging” of how living cells actually operate and evolve “is so immensely more complicated than anyone imagined, it’s almost depressing,” Rigoutsos said.

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Ribosome does “Fast Forward Scanning”

“ribosomes, which are “like tape readers that can translate one message, written in DNA, to another message, written in proteins” have a forward “scan function.” This allows the ribosome to detach from reading and reattach on a “landing site,” at which is then scans the RNA code until it is told to stop scanning by a code sequence. Details of this finding were published in “Evidence that the bypassing ribosome travels through the coding gap,” PNAS USA, 10.1073/pnas.2233745100. The conclusion is clear: the machinery of translation is capable of handling contingencies and unexpected events and, “the big picture of gene translation is far more complex than at first realized.” (10/23/03)

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu­bmed/17708768

The Biological Big Bang model for the major transitions in evolution.

“Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwin’s original proposal…In each of these pivotal nexuses in life’s history, the principal “types” seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate “grades” or intermediate forms between different types are detectable”

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http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sci­ence/4312355/Charles-Darwins-t­ree-of-life-is-wrong-and-misle­ading-claim-scientists.html

Dr Dupré said: “There are problems even in that little corner.” Having uprooted the tree of unicellular life biologists are now taking their axes to the remaining branches.”

Dr Bapteste said: “If you don’t have a tree of life what does it mean for evolutionary biology. At first it’s very scary — but in the past couple of years people have begun to free their minds.”

Dr Rose said: “The tree of life is being politely buried — we all know that. What’s less accepted is our whole fundamental view of biology needs to change.”

“He says biology is vastly more complex than we thought and facing up to this complexity will be as scary as the conceptual upheavals physicists had to take on board in the early 20th century

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“Much of the problem is that neo-Darwinism appears completely invincible to falsification by observations or by experiments, so much so that many doubt if it is a scientific theory at all. Partly, the stochastic nature of evolutionary changes must demand that there should be an unique explanation for each event, so that any difficulty raised by observations could be explained or explained away with ease, and partly, the practitioners of neo-Darwinism exhibit a great power of assimilation, incorporating any opposing viewpoint as yet another “mechanism” in the grand “synthesis”. But a real synthesis should begin by identifying conflicting elements in the theory, rather than in accommodating contradictions as quickly as they arise.” Beyond neo- Darwinism – An Epigenetic Approach to Evolution” Journal of Theoretical Biology Vol. 78, 1979 p.574

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http://www.mitpressjournals.or­g/doi/abs/10.1162/biot.2006.1.­4.357

Darwinian evolution predicts relatedness from molecular assumptions that are proven invalid

“Although molecular systematists may use the terminology of cladism, claiming that the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships is based on shared derived states (synapomorphies), the latter is not the case. Rather, molecular systematics is (largely) based on the assumption, first clearly articulated by Zuckerkandl and Pauling (1962), that degree of overall similarity reflects degree of relatedness. This assumption derives from interpreting molecular similarity (or dissimilarity) between taxa in the context of a Darwinian model of continual and gradual change. Review of the history of molecular systematics and its claims in the context of molecular biology reveals that there is no basis for the “molecular assumption.”

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http://www.nytimes.com/1998/04­/14/science/tree-of-life-turns­-out-to-have-surprisingly-comp­lex-roots.html?src=pm

Tree of Life Turns Out to Have Surprisingly Complex Roots

“Five years ago, we were very confident and arrogant in our ignorance,” said Dr. Eugene V. Koonin of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. ”Now we are starting to see the true complexity of life”

The family of genes that makes the stiff framework of eukaryotic cells, known as the cytoskeleton, seems to appear out of nowhere. ”The absence of sequences closely related to the slowly changing proteins of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton remains unsettling,” Dr. Russell F. Doolittle of the University of California, San Diego, wrote in the 26 March issue of Nature.

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“That molecular evidence typically squares with morphological patterns is a view held by many biologists, but interestingly, by relatively few systematists. Most of the latter know that the two lines of evidence may often be incongruent.(incompatible)”

– Masami Hasegawa, Jun Adachi, Michel C. Milinkovitch, “Novel Phylogeny of Whales Supported by Total Molecular Evidence,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, Vol. 44, pgs. S117-S120 (Supplement 1, 1997)

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In the article “Is It Time to Uproot the Tree of Life?” by Elizabeth Pennisi, She says

“When full DNA sequences opened the way to comparing many different genes in different organisms, the comparisons proved confounding. Rather than clarifying the tree that seeks to show how life evolved, they often produced new trees that differ from the traditional tree and conflict with each other as well.”

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“As morphologists with high hopes of molecular systematics, we end this survey with our hopes dampened. Congruence between molecular phylogenies is as elusive as it is in morphology and as it is between molecules and morphology”.

– Patterson et al., “Congruence between Molecular and Morphological Phylogenies,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol 24, pg. 179 (1993)

“Phylogenetic incongruities [conflicts] can be seen everywhere in the universal tree, from its root to the major branchings within and among the various taxa to the makeup of the primary groupings themselves.”

– Carl Woese “The Universal Ancestor,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Vol. 95:6854-9859 (June, 1998)

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“For a long time the holy grail was to build a tree of life,” says Eric Bapteste, an evolutionary biologist at the Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris, France. A few years ago it looked as though the grail was within reach. But today the project lies in tatters, torn to pieces by an onslaught of negative evidence. Many biologists now argue that the tree concept is obsolete and needs to be discarded. “We have no evidence at all that the tree of life is a reality,” says Bapteste. That bombshell has even persuaded some that our fundamental view of biology needs to change.”

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“It is now clear that the pride with which it was assumed that the inheritance of homologous structures from a common ancestor explained homology was misplaced; for such inheritance cannot be ascribed to identity of genes. The attempt to find homologous genes has been given up as hopeless.” SIR GAVIN DEBEER, Prof. Embry., U. London, Director BMNH Oxford Biology Reader, p.16, HOMOLOGY AN UNSOLVED PROBLEM

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http://www.physorg.com/news140266859.html

Scientists uncover miscalculation in geological undersea record

“This study is a major step in terms of rethinking how geologists interpret variations in the 13C/12C ratio throughout Earth’s history. If the approach does not work over the past 10 million years, then why would it work during older time periods?” said Swart. “As a consequence of our findings, changes in 13C/12C records need to be reevaluated, conclusions regarding changes in the reservoirs of carbon will have to be reassessed, and some of the widely-held ideas regarding the elevation of CO2 during specific periods of the Earth’s geological history will have to be adjusted.”

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http://www.grisda.org/origins/09067.htm

Stratigraphic distribution of vertebrate fossil footprints compared with body fossils,” L. Brand and J. Florence, Origins 9 (1982): 67-74

“We would expect that fossil layers containing footprints of an animal would also contain the fossils of the animals themselves. However, this is not always the case. Bird and mammal footprints and fossils occur mostly in the same layer. Amphibian and reptile fossils, however, don’t match up with the footprints. For example, there are very few reptile footprints and no amphibian prints in the Cretaceous layer. The only reptile prints are from dinosaurs. However, amphibians and reptile body fossils are extremely abundant in the Cretaceous layer

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http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v210/n5033/abs/210292a0.html

Full story http://creation.com/pollen-paradox

Pollen Paradox

Evolutionists have ‘allergic’ reaction to Precambrian pollen–South American fossils more than a billion years ‘out of date’

In his original article in Nature, Stainforth reports how opinions on this evolutionary paradox basically fall into two camps (both long-age, of course). The first camp says, in effect, that the radiometric dating shows the rock must be that old. But by evolutionary reasoning, having plants living at a time more than a billion years before they emerged is impossible

Stainforth’s last paragraph states: “we offer no solution to the paradox.” It ends by calling this “a highly intriguing geological problem.”

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“A large number of well-trained scientists outside of evolutionary biology and paleontology have unfortunately gotten the idea that the fossil record is far more Darwinian than it is. This probably comes from the oversimplification inevitable in secondary sources: low-level textbooks semipopular articles, and so on. Also, there is probably some wishful thinking involved. In the years after Darwin, his advocates hoped to find predictable progressions. In general. these have not been found-yet the optimism has died hard and some pure fantasy has crept into textbooks.” Raup, David M. [Professor of Geology, University of Chicago], “Evolution and the Fossil Record,” Science, Vol. 213, No. 4505, 17 July 1981, p.289

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